Tag Archives: New York City

17th century Native American caves still providing shelter

At the northern tip of Manhattan Island you’ll find Inwood Hill Park, a living piece of old New York. Unlike other Manhattan parks it is a largely natural landscape that hasn’t been altered too much by the wars and development that followed the arrival of European colonists in the 17th and 18th centuries.

The Park’s human history dates back to Pre-Columbian times (before  significant European influences). Local Native Americans (the Lenape) inhabited the area through the 17th century, using the Hudson (to the west) and Harlem Rivers (to the north and east) as food sources. There is historical evidence of a main encampment along the Park’s eastern edge, while  discoveries of historical artefacts and campfire remains suggest natural rock overhangs, the  ‘Native American Caves’ (the caves),  provided shelter and temporary living quarters.

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Henry Hudson Bridge across the Harlem River at the northeast of Inwood Hill Park.

I set off to explore the caves on a toe-numbingly cold day. They are a pretty easy 0.7 miles (1.1 km) walk from the A (8 Avenue Express) Inwood-207 Street subway station, though the last little way up to them is a little steeper in places. Click here for walking route.

The Park’s terrain is impressive with giant rock ridges, a valley, rock overhangs and potholes. It was largely shaped by the Wisconsin ice sheet, the most recent southward advance of ice in the last Ice Age, which reached New York roughly 50,000 years ago.

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Cliff in Inwood Hill Park

The Shorakkopoch Rock marks the site of the tulip tree under which Peter Minuit, Director General of New Netherland (17th-century colonial province of the Dutch Republic on the East Coast of North America), allegedly ‘purchased’ Manhattan from a band of Native Americans in 1626 for the Dutch West India Company for a shipment of goods worth 60 guilders. Arriving at the Rock it’s a short walk to the caves. The image below gives an idea of what the area looks like –  at least in snow!

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Area of ‘Native American Caves’ in Inwood Hill Park – seen from near Shorakkopoch Rock

Tramping uphill through knee-deep snow I heard the faint sound of a radio as I neared the caves.  After a slight double-take I saw that the nearest habitable space providing good shelter was occupied; rough material hangings covered part of the entrance and through the gap I could see a pair of feet tapping along to the music. Further uphill the next space providing shelter from the elements was also occupied and the slope steepened making further exploration risky in the conditions. Not wanting to disturb the occupants I retraced my steps.

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Amongst the caves, with musical accompaniment

Though I wasn’t able to explore the caves area properly it was a beautifully bright day and I spent  more time walking through the Park. I’ll definitely visit again to further checkout the caves and look for other geological features such as glacial potholes.

Leaving the Park I found the Indian Road  Café, where I had a very tasty breakfast (Smoked Salmon Scrambled Eggs for $12). My latte was fairly average, but I’m fussy; I’d certainly use the café again.

That evening, warm at home,  I reflected on  how cold it had been up at Inwood  and that I could treat myself to breakfast and a hot drink while people are sleeping rough in such brutal weather conditions. It brought home why there are such concerns about growing inequality in New York City;  a combination of jobs that don’t pay “living wages” and a lack of “affordable housing” has seen homeless figures  rise to the highest since the Great Depression (1929 – 39).

In 2013 the total number of homeless people in municipal shelters in 2013 was 53,270. The NYC Department of Homeless Services (DHS) estimated that in 2013 a further 3,180 homeless people were unsheltered, i.e. sleeping in parks, subways, and other public spaces; this figure was based on the DHS annual Homeless Outreach Population Estimate (HOPE) survey, which takes place on a SINGLE winter night (27 January in 2014). The Coalition for the Homeless considers  the DHS figure to be an underestimate because the survey is unlikely to log those sleeping in out of the way places, such as those I came across and in the remoter parts of the subway.

It’s dangerous living rough especially in this winter’s brutal weather. Unfortunately, for some, municipal shelters aren’t necessarily a better option. Thinking back to earlier in the day and those feet tapping along to the music I hope that shelter sees its occupant safely through the winter.

 

Last week I travelled from Queens to Ireland for $US 5.00!

Standing Stone, Irish Hunger Memorial, Battery Park City, NYC
Standing Stone, Irish Hunger Memorial, Battery Park City, NYC

That’s the price of a return subway fare.

OK so I didn’t actually leave New York City but by visiting the Irish Hunger (also known as The Great Irish Famine or, particularly outside Ireland, the Irish Potato Famine) Memorial in the Battery Park City neighbourhood at the southwestern tip of Manhattan you are literally stepping onto a piece of Ireland.

 

Looking east along Vesey Street toward One World Trade Center
Looking east along Vesey Street toward One World Trade Center

Dwarfed by the surrounding buildings the landscaped plot uses stones brought in from each of Ireland’s counties, along with soil, and native vegetation from Ireland’s western coast. You’ll also see the ruins of an authentic Hunger-era cottage from County Mayo.

 

 

 

Reconstructed 19th century cottage
Reconstructed 19th century cottage

The ruined cottage on the plot reminded me of the abandoned buildings I  came across with my brother Mike when we hiked the moors and fells of Northern England, Scotland and Eire many moons ago.  These dwellings and other ruins always seemed to exude a certain poignancy that made us wonder why they had been abandoned.

The Memorial plot cantilevered above a Citi Bike docking. station.
The Memorial plot cantilevered above a Citi Bike docking. station.

The plot on which the cottage, winding path, and standing stones, are found is cantilevered above the sidewalk. This means that you might walk past it without realising what lies above your head.

Entrance tunnel to the memorial.
Entrance tunnel to the memorial.

When you visit you’ll enter from street-level via a limestone tunnel. The tunnel walls are covered in writings related to the Hunger. Take your time, read and reflect on them to get some appreciation of the context of the Hunger that claimed over a million people between 1845 and 1852. Approximately two million immigrated to the US between 1845 and 1860. Many settled in New York City, which  today has the largest number of Irish-Americans of any city in the US.

The ships that carried Irish immigrants escaping the Hunger were referred to as ‘coffin ships’. Conditions on board were crowded and disease-ridden. Owners provided little food, water or living space. It was said that sharks could be seen following the ships because so many bodies were thrown overboard. Mortality rates of 30% were common.

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The sculpture “Arrival” celebrating the contribution of the Irish diaspora to societies around the world
The Irish National Famine Monument at Murrisk, County Mayo. This image is the property of Pamela Norrington. Link: https://ssl.panoramio.com/photo/4888725

Sculptures of the ships commemorate immigrants departing Ireland and arriving in the US. In the Sculpture Garden of the United Nations  on First Avenue in Midtown Manhattan there is a 26-by-24-foot (8m-by-7m) bronze sculpture by Dublin-born sculptor John Behan entitled ‘Arrival’, which I’ve visited on more than one occasion.

The sculpture  celebrates the Irish who traveled the world in search of a new life, the nations and countries that offered them a chance for a better life, and the contribution the Irish diaspora has made to societies throughout the world. Irish immigrants are depicted disembarking from a coffin ship along two gangplanks.

‘Arrival’ is a variation on Behan’s ‘Coffin Ship’, the National Famine Memorial at Murrisk, County Mayo, on the West Coast of Ireland. Mary Robinson, then the Irish President, unveiled the ‘Coffin Ship’ in 1997 for the 150th anniversary of the Irish Famine. The sculpture in Ireland, rather than celebrating the safe arrival of immigrants, conjures up the horror of the coffin ships through the symbolic representation of the ship’s rigging by skeletons and bones.

Visiting the Hunger Memorial in Battery Park City reminds you of the opportunities New York City  offered the desperate Irish immigrants. It continues to be a place for new beginnings for millions of immigrants from all over the world. In return they contribute to the city’s amazing cultural diversity, economic activity (nearly one-third in 2011), and workforce (44 per cent in 2011).

Footnote: I am currently checking out what opportunities there are for visitors to the UN complex to visit the Sculpture Garden. I’ll post any details once I get them.